Endogenously

“The endogenous, autonomous nature of institutions indicates that the economic agents’ and social actors’ “game” is not one in which institutions can be intentionally formed by an external agency such as a ministry, a non-governmental organization, or a consulting company. Contrarily, the game knows no exogenous agency because all are in the game, whether they are state, civic, or corporate actors, while the institutions that govern the game are the autonomous results of endogenous power differences and interactions between actors.”  P. Ho (2017), Unmaking China’s Development, Cambridge University Press, p. 90.

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