The framework typically allows for a dynamic analysis of institutions through the inclusion of time. This is achieved by analyzing institutions at various time points, t1, t2….tx. More info: P. Ho, Unmaking China’s Development, Cambridge University Press, 2017, pp. 8-16. For applications, see e.g. Sun and Ho, 2020; Arvanitidis and Papagianitsis, 2020; Nor-Hisham and Ho, 2016.